Yes, we used a crate inside. A trainer told us to keep the crate in our bedroom so that our puppy would get used to our smells and bond quicker. The puppies whimper only for a few nights and then they get used to the crate and all of our corgis loved them.
Our breeders have all sawdust trained our pups, so it makes it easy if you have an outdoor area where you can use 2 x 4s and build an area for sawdust, like a big litter box. We just carry the pups out to that area and it makes the training a breeze.